Pharmacology of essential oils

Despite thousands of years of historical use, decades of modern research, and thousands of peer-reviewed scientific studies describing the benefits of essential oils, understanding the most effective application methods (especially internal use) and the amount needed to experience these benefits is still in the early stages. The FDA does not classify essential oils as “drugs,” but because of their effects on the body, to develop effective models of use, we must use the same framework used to investigate drugs: pharmacological research. Dr. Cody Beaumont PhD, Sr. Director, Research and Quality Control, discussed some of the early findings of doTERRA’s groundbreaking pharmacological research.

The two branches of pharmacological research

There are two main branches of pharmacological study. Simply put, pharmacokinetics is the study of how an organism (in the case of doTERRA’s studies, a human) affects a substance. Pharmacodynamics is the study of how a substance affects an organism. Like Dr. Beaumont says, “pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) are like anatomy and physiology or quality assurance and control; you can’t really know one without the other.” In pharmacological research we mainly look at how a substance (essential oils) mimics or influences normal physiological (normal human function) or pathological (related to a disease state) processes. These generally involve seven specific actions: stimulating action, depressing action, blocking or antagonizing action, stabilizing an action, exchanging/replacing or hoarding substances as reserves, directing beneficial chemical reactions or directing harmful chemical reactions.

Pharmacological research at doTERRA

The study design of the pharmacological work conducted at doTERRA is simple and standardized, yet groundbreaking, because it has never been conducted with essential oils. Study participants are given a specific dose (for internal use), then blood samples are collected and analyzed at specific times for three measurements:

Cmax: The highest concentration of the substance in the blood within a defined region of the body after administration and before a second dose.

Cmin: the lowest concentration of the substance in the blood within a defined region of the body after administration and before a second dose.

Half-life: the time it takes for the concentration of the substance in the blood to be reduced by half.

The results

During the preparation of the agreement, data collection was completed for three substances containing essential oils: Turmeric, Copaiba Softgels, and a 300 mg Lavender capsule. The combination of turmeric essential oil and turmeric extract proved to be a valid answer to the biggest problem with most turmeric extract supplements: high bioavailability without the toxicity risk. We have also found that full absorption of Copaiba Softgels occurs within two hours. With the Lavender capsule, the dominant ingredient, linalool, achieved a shockingly rapid elimination, with a half-life of one hour.

What does this mean for me?

With a better understanding of the concentration (max and min) and half-life of the active therapeutic substances or substances of interest, doTERRA can evaluate the dosage more accurately. With the half-life data, we can determine the dosing interval to maintain the desired effects in the most effective manner. Once we know the pharmacokinetic parameters of a compound, we can tailor the benefits specifically to the needs of everyone using the essential oil. And this information is not only valuable to people who use essential oils at home, but also provides an evidence base for use in a clinical setting. With this information available to physicians, they can feel comfortable using essential oils as a supplement or even an alternative to current treatments, knowing that they have undergone the same scientific evaluation to determine efficacy and safety.

The future of essential oils

The next step is to continue collecting data, gathering this pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for more essential oils and for the individual compounds that make up essential oils. Then a series of publications that will allow the scientific and medical community to evaluate and share the findings. This powerful research will change the way essential oils are experienced, used and viewed and will allow doTERRA to develop evidence-based usage models and continue to provide the most effective essential oils on the market.

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